Science and Technology in Rural India : A Study of Tripura ::By Kiran Bhowmik

Technology or modern technology is the innovation of science which helps to produce more output in case of production and more amount of output. The technology helps to increase the amount of income if the product is demanded in the market. The demanded goods always help to earn more income and more income helps in case of more investment which indicates more employment and more development too.

Technology is the main path for development as well as economic development because without proper technology it is not possible to improve the production system. If it is unable to produce qualitative goods at low cost of production than it will not possible to develop our state as well as country.

Dualism is the main reason of economic development which divides between rural and urban. In case of developing country it has seen that the duality is there at huge amount which is not expected. Duality comes due to unequal distribution of wealth between urban and rural areas. Duality is not good or expected for development, so it is important to reduce duality.

The government of India has taken various initiatives to reduce the duality between rural and urban. Technology is the main way for reducing the duality and the central government of India has taken various initiatives which will helpful to improve the quality of life in rural India through proper use of technology.

If technology can use properly than it will possible to develop the remote areas of our country. In case of our country the North Eastern Region is very remotest area from main center of the country India. The states of North East are very backword but this area is very reach in case of natural resources. It is very important to give stress on development of North Eastern region which will possible through development of technology because there is not any proper road connectivity.

Although the present central government is very careful in case of development of North Eastern regions and trying it to develop this region in proper way by using proper use of technology. It is clear that the present central government is technology friendly and aware about technology. Very recent the Prime Minister of India and Bangladesh inaugurated the third internet gate way which established at Agartala, capital city of Tripura. This internet gate way will helpful to develop the North Eastern states by the appropriate use of technology.

As per report of Economic Reviewof Tripura, Economy of Tripura is basically agrarian and characterized by high rate of poverty, low per-capita income, low capital formation, in-adequate infrastructure facilities, geographical isolation and communication bottleneck, inadequate exploitation and use of forest and mineral resources, low progress in industrial field and high un-employment problem. The prominent hill ranges of the State are Jampui, Sakhantang,Longtharai, Atharamura, Baramura, Deotamura, Belkum and Kalajhari. BetlingShib (939 meters), situated in the Jampui Range, is the highest peak of Tripura. The important forest products include Sal, Teak, Gamai,Gurjan and Champa. Bamboo is available in the State abundantly, and is traditionally being used for a variety of purpose by the tribal people. The Gumati, Howrah, Dhalai, Muhuri, Feni and Juri are the major rivers which swell in monsoon but become shallow during the rest of the year.

The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India has released the provisional population figures for Census-2011.The population of Tripura for 2011 was 36,73,917, out of which 18,74,376 males and 17,99,541 females.The data of Census-2011 shows that Tripura ranks 18th in terms of density of populatin at all India level. Among the northeastern states, Tripura remained the second highest populous State after Assam. The population density of Tripura in 2011 was 350 persons per which means that 45 more people live in a sq. km. area in the State then they lived a decade ago. The population density for all India in 2011 was 324. The Census- 2011 data reveals that the sex ratio was 961 as against 948 (per 1000 males) in 2001. This is a positive improvement in sex ratio in the State and it rose from 945 (per 1000 males) in 1991 to 948 (per 1000 males) in 2001 and further to 961 in 2011.

The literacy and education are reasonably good indicators of development in a society. The literacy rate for Tripura in 2011 works out to 87.22 percent for the population 7 years and above, which was 73.20 percent in 2001 and 60.44 percent in 1991. The corresponding figures in 2011 for males and females were 91.5 percent and 82.7.  Percent, respectively. At the State level, gap in male-female ratio in the State has been reduced to 8.8 percent in 2011 as against 17.01 percent in 2001.Tripura has achieved a high level of literacy at all India level and ranked third among the States after Kerala and Mizoram in 2011. As per recent study conducted by the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Kolkata the literacy rate stands at 95.16 percent in 2013. The ISI, Kolkata has also appreciated the present level of literacy including the women literacy in the State.

In case of Tripura, it is not possible to develop as early as possible without the help of technology because it is geographically very down ward state. If it is possible to use technology then it will easy to develop this state and possible to reduce the duality. So the government of India has given more stress on technology in case of development of Tripura as well as North Eastern States.

The government of Tripura is also interested to develop the state by using proper technology. The Department of Science, Technology & Environment was established in the year 1984-85 with an eye to providing Science and Technology inputs for upliftment of socio economic scenario and quality of life of the people, especially the marginalized section of the society. This Department is now implementing the Science Popularization and Promotion, Renewable Energy, Environment related programme, Bio- technology related projects, GIS technology for the developmental planning of the State, Sukanta Academy for Science, Arts and Culture in regard to inculcate the scientific temperament to the children from their childhood. The department implements the scheme mentioned above briefly through its constituent bodies are Tripura State Council for Science and Technology, Tripura State Pollution Control Board, Triura Renewable Energy Development Agency, Sukanta Academy, Directorate of Bio- Technology Tripura Bio-Technology Council, Tripura Space Application Centre. The Department of Science, Technology & Environment acts as Administrative Department and provides fund as Grant in aid to their constituent organization for implementation of their schemes/ programmes.

The Department of Science, Technology & Environment organizes various science related programme with an eye to developing the state by using science and technology because the state is not to be developed if it will not possible to implement the schemes those are relating with technology. The technology is the way of success and it works as an engine of development in rural area.

The Department of Science, Technology & Environment, Government of Tripura works to encourage the individuals or organizations for remarkable works in the field of Science & Technology in Tripura, awards have been instituted in different fields in the name of C.V Raman, Homi Jahangir Bhava, MeghnadSaha, AcharyyaPrafulla Chandra Roy and Jagadish Chandra Basu. A workshop organizes on Developing R & D proposals for North Eastern States of India and workshop also hold on dehydration of flowers and flower craft technology. Entrepreneurship development programme is very important programme of the Department of Science, Technology & Environment where 2500 numbers of unemployed students had been trained under this scheme in the year 2013. A Pattern Information Center is here in Tripura and workshops have been organized in different colleges and universities to generate awareness on different issues on Intellectual Property Rights. An Intellectual Property Facilitation Centre (IPFC) has also been established here in Tripura for MSME industries.

The Department of Science, Technology & Environment,Government of Tripura works in case of renewable energy for developing the state in view of science and technology. The Tripura Renewable Energy Development Agency (TREDA) is the State Nodal Agency for implementation of projects using Renewable sources of Energy. The following projects are being implemented by this agency at remote places.

Remote village electrification is the main goal of this nodal department under the scheme 142 numbers of families of un-electrified remote census villages and 251 hamlets were gird connectivity is not economically or geographically feasible were provided with Solar Home Lighting System.

In Tripura there is a Space Application Centre and the Centre was established in the year 2006 and has been declared as State Nodal Agency for GIS activities. This Centre is playing a proactive role to fulfill the requirement of high quality data on Natural Resources and taking up projects as per requirement of Forest, Agriculture, Water Resources, and Urban Development.

In order to promote the active involvement of Children in Science, Arts & Culture, the Sukanta Academy was established on February 28,1997. The facilities which are available now in Sukanta Academy are Science Gallery, ISRO Gallery, Forest Fallery, 3D Show, Energy Park, Sky Watching facilities, Air Conditioning Auditorium and Journey to Sun via Mars.

To enhance scientific awareness among the people at large and develop a scientific temper among the youth Vigyan Gram (Science City) is under construction at Badharghat, A.D Nagar, Agartala on 12.42 acres land. First phase of construction works is going on. The Science City building will have Exhibition area exhibit hall, Educational programme and visitor activities area, Space Theater cum planetarium. 

The use of Biotechnology is an important programme of the Department of Science, Technology & Environment, Government of Tripura. With an eye to improve management of Bio – resources in Tripura through biotechnological interventions for sustainable socio-economic development. The programmes which were taken by the Directorate of Biotechnology those are Distribution of Bio-tech Kits, Establishment of Demonstration Plots on Organic Farming in Tripura, National, Regional and State level Workshop, Training programme for farmers.

The training programmes have been organized on various aspects of Biotechnology in the field of Organic Farming, Integrated Pest Management, Nursery Management etc and farmers were trained through the above programmes.

The maximum people of Tripura are relating with agricultural production. So it may better if the benefits of science and technology can able to use in case agricultural production. Technology is the way for development. The proper use of technology indicates more amount of return at low level of production cost. If it possible to reduce the production cost than it will automatically possible to set the price of goods at lower level. Technology is more useful in case of rural India because technology is the main factor for development of rural India.

The state government of Tripura has archived few successes in case of implementation of various schemes. The achievement of the Department of Science, Technology & Environment at a glance in below




Remote Village ElectrificatioProgramme


36247 Numbers

Solar Lantern

2500 Numbers

64723 Numbers

Bio-gas Plant

92 Numbers

2209 Numbers

SPV Power Plant


758 KHP

Solar Water Heating System



Solar Street Lighting System


1292 Numbers

School Science Club

Not Started

840 Numbers

Science Forum at College/ Universities

Not Started

19 Numbers

School Eco Club

Not Started

950 Numbers

DNA Club at School

Not Started

32 Numbes

Entrepreneurship Development Programme

Not Started

2500 Person

Consent Certificates

889 Numbers

3923 Numbers

Water Quality Monitoring


775 Numbers


(Source: Department of Science, Technology & Environment, Government of Tripura)

The state Tripura is rural and maximum area of state are under developed. The government is trying as per level vest to develop the state by using modern technology. Technology is the main way for development of rural area of our country India. It is the expectation of people of Tripura that the central government will more active in case of development of Tripura with the help of technology. Technology reduces the duality between rural and urban. So it is needed to use technology for proper development of rural India.


1) Progress of the Department of Science, Technology & Environment, 1984-2014, Government of Tripura

2)  Progress of the Department of Science, Technology & Environment, 2013, Government of Tripura

3) The Economic Review of Tripura, 2013-14

4)  Journey to Sun via Mars,

 Published By: the Department of Science, Technology & Environment, Government of Tripura.

About the author:Kiran Bhowmik is Reporter of Tripura Observer, the Premier English Daily of Tripura and Executive News Editor of


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